Rozhovor: Psychiater Jozef Hašto: Mama nemusí byť dokonalá, stačí, keď je dostatočne dobrá
rozhovor uverejnený na: najmama.aktuality.sk
Rozhovor: Psychiater Hašto: Mama by nemala chcieť byť extrémne dobrá mama, môže robiť chyby a mať svoje potreby
Ak rodič udrie dieťa raz, nemusí to zanechať stopy, ale ak je to spôsob výchovy, je to veľký problém, hovorí psychiater Hašto.
Psychiater Jozef Hašto opisuje, ako sa vzťah s mamou už od útleho veku prejavuje vo vzťahoch, ktoré človek v dospelosti má, a či sa naučené vzorce správania dajú v neskoršom veku potlačiť.
Handbook of Attachment: Theory, Research, and Clinical Applications - Konspekt
Hašto, J: Vzťahová väzba, pripútavacie správanie a psychiatria - psychoterapia
Hasto J: Správanie senzitívnej matky/rodiča a náhradného rodiča a mentalizačná schopnosť - význam pre prevenciu a liečbu
Development, Attachment and Childhood Experiences
Peter Fonagy, Ph.D., Anthony W. Bateman, M.A., FRCPsych, Nicolas Lorenzini, M.Sc., M.Phil., Chloe Campbell, Ph.D.
Attachment theory (Bowlby 1969) describes how individuals manage their most intimate relationships with their "attachment figures": their parents, children, and romantic partners. Attach-ment, at an evolutionary level, is an adap-tation for survival-it is the mechanism by which babies elicit essential care. As more ....
Integratívne neurovedecké aspekty vzťahovej väzby
Radovan Hrubý, Jozef Hašto
Specifying the Neurobiological Basis of Human Attachment: Brain, Hormones, and Behavior in Synchronous and Intrusive Mothers
Shir Atzil, Talma Hendler and Ruth Feldman
The mother–infant bond provides the foundation for the infant’s future mental health and adaptation and depends on the provision of species-typical maternal behaviors that are supported by neuroendocrine and motivation-affective neural systems. Animal research has demonstrated that natural variations in patterns of maternal care chart discrete profiles of maternal brain–behavior relationships that uniquely shape the infant’s lifetime capacities for stress regulation and social affiliation. Such patterns of maternal care are mediated by the neuropeptide Oxytocin and by stress- and reward-related neural systems. Human studies have similarly shown that maternal synchronyFthe coordination of maternal behavior with infant signalsFand intrusivenessFthe excessive expression of maternal behaviorFdescribe distinct and stable maternal styles that bear long-term consequences for infant well-being. To integrate brain, hormones, and behavior in the study of maternal–infant bonding, we examined the fMRI responses of synchronous vs intrusive mothers to dynamic, ecologically valid infant videos and their correlations with plasma Oxytocin. In all, 23 mothers were videotaped at home interacting with their infants and plasma OT assayed. Sessions were micro-coded for synchrony and intrusiveness. Mothers were scanned while observing several own and standard infant-related vignettes. Synchronous mothers showed greater activations in the left nucleus accumbens (NAcc) and intrusive mothers exhibited higher activations in the right amygdala. Functional connectivity analysis revealed that among synchronous mothers, left NAcc and right amygdala were functionally correlated with emotion modulation, theory-of-mind, and empathy networks. Among intrusive mothers, left NAcc and right amygdala were functionally correlated with pro-action areas. Sorting points into neighborhood (SPIN) analysis demonstrated that in the synchronous group, left NAcc and right amygdala activations showed clearer organization across time, whereas among intrusive mothers, activations of these nuclei exhibited greater cross-time disorganization. Correlations between Oxytocin with left NAcc and right amygdala activations were found only in the synchronous group. Well-adapted parenting appears to be underlay by reward-related motivational mechanisms, temporal organization, and affiliation hormones, whereas anxious parenting is likely mediated by stress-related mechanisms and greater neural disorganization. Assessing the integration of motivation and social networks into unified neural activity that reflects variations in patterns of parental care may prove useful for the study of optimal vs high-risk parenting.
Adult attachment style as mediator between childhood neglect abuse and adult depression and anxiety
Antonia Bifulco, Junghye Kwon, Catherine Jacobs, Patricia M. Moran, Amanda Bunn, Nils Beer
Abstract Background There has been little pro-spective investigation of the relationship between adult attachment style and clinical levels of anxiety and major depression. This paper seeks to address this, as well as examining the potentially mediating role of adult insecure attachment styles in the rela-tionship between childhood adverse experience and adult disorder. Methods 154 high-risk community women studied in 1990–1995, were followed-up in 1995–1999 to test the role of insecure attachment style in predicting new episodes of anxiety and/or major depressive disorder. The Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse (CECA) and the Attachment Style Interview (ASI) were administered at ﬁrst interview and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID) administered at ﬁrst and follow-up interview. Major depression and clinical level anxiety disorders (GAD, Social Phobia or Panic and/or Agoraphobia) were assessed at ﬁrst contact and for the intervening follow-up period. Results 55% (85/154) of the women had at least one case level disorder in the follow-up period. Only markedly or moderately (but not mildly) insecure attachment styles predicted both major depression and case anxiety in follow-up. Some speciﬁcity was determined with Fearful style signiﬁ-cantly associated both with depression and Social
Bad Blood Revisited- Attachment and Psychoanalysis
PETER FONAGY and CHLOE CAMPBELL
This article attempts to trace the intellectual history of the relationship between attachment theory and psychoanalytic thinking, and considers where we are now in the discourse between the two ﬁelds. We describe some of the points of convergence, as well as areas of continuing conten-tion, and suggest future directions for attachment work which have a bearing on its relationship with psychoanalysis. In particular, mentalizing theory is discussed as a line of thinking that draws on both attachment ideas and psychoanalysis; recent developments in mentalizing are described within an argument about the future development of attachment thinking. Two constructs connected to attachment and mentalizing, epistemic trust and the concept of a general factor in psychopathology, are discussed along with the implications of these ideas for thinking about the common factors that effective psychotherapeutic interventions share.
Less Is More- Meta-Analyses of Sensitivity and Attachment Interventions in Early Childhood
Marian J. Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marinus H. van IJzendoorn, and Femmie Juffer
Is early preventive intervention effective in enhancing parental sensitivity and infant attachment security, and if so, what type of intervention is most successful? Seventy studies were traced, producing 88 intervention effects on sensitivity (n = 7,636) and/or attachment (n = 1,503). Randomized interventions appeared rather effective in changing insensitive parenting (d = 0.33) and infant attachment insecurity (d = 0.20). The most effective interventions used a moderate number of sessions and a clear-cut behavioral focus in families with, as well as without, multiple problems. Interventions that were more effective in enhancing parental sensitivity were also more effective in enhancing attachment security, which supports the notion of a causal role of sensitivity in shaping attachment.
Diskusia o význame popôrodného kontaktu matky a dieťaťa
Otázky: Gabriela Janovičová a Miroslava Rašmanová (Občianske združenie Ženské kruhy)
Odpovede: doc. MUDr. Jozef Hašto, PhD., lekár - psychiater a psychoterapeut
Why are we interested in attachments
Peter Fonagy, Nicolas Lorenzini, Chloe Campbell and Patrick Luyten
Introduction: Attachment theory describes the ways in which individuals handle their most inti-mate relationships with their parents, children and life-partners: their attachment figures. When people are at their most vulnerable, frightened or unwell, they will, in different ways, seek comfort and help. This seeking out of help, and the dif-ferent styles used to obtain help, constitute the attachment process. Attachment, at an evolutionary level, is a basic adaptation for survival - it is the mechanism by which babies elicit essential care. As we understand more, however, about the interface of brain development and early psychosocial experience it becomes clear that the evolutionary role of the attachment relationship goes far beyond giving physical protection to the human infant.
Vzťahová väzba, pripútavacie správanie a psychiatria - psychoterapia
Attachment style and immunity: A 1-year longitudinal study
Angelo Picardia, Rossella Migliob, Lorenzo Tarsitanic, Francesca Battistid, Maurizio Baldassarie,
Alfredo Copertarof, Eugenio Mocchegianig, Isabella Cascavillaa, Massimo Biondic
Abstract: Previous cross-sectional studies suggested an association between attachment-related avoidance and altered immune function. We aimed at testing this hypothesis with longitudinal data. A random sample of 65 female nurses provided a blood sample and completed measures of perceived stress, social support, alexithymia, and attachment style. Immune assays included lymphocyte proliferative response (LPR) to Phytohemagglutinin and NK cell cytotoxicity (NKCC). State measures
(perceived stress and support) and immune measures were collected again after 4, 8, and 12 months. Linear mixed effects models were used to examine the relationship between attachment and immunity. While low to moderate levels of attachment-related avoidance were not associated with NKCC, there was a significant negative association (Beta -.35; p=0.005) between high levels of avoidance and NKCC. No association was observed between NKCC and attachment-related anxiety, and between LPR and both attachment dimensions. While our findings should be interpreted with caution due to study limitations such as the relatively small sample size and the inclusion of only female participants, they corroborate the notion that attachment is linked to physiology and health.
Attachment Representation modulates Oxytocin Effects on the Processing of Own-Child Faces in Fathers
Christiane Waller MD, Matthias Wittfoth PhD, Konstantin Fritzsche,
Lydia Timm PhD, Dina Wittfoth-Schardt PhD, Edit Rottler,
Markus Heinrichs PhD, Anna Buchheim PhD, Markus Kiefer PhD, Harald Gündel MD
Abstract: Oxytocin (OT) plays a crucial role in parental-infant bonding and attachment. Recent functional imaging studies reveal specific attachment and reward related brain regions in individuals or within the parent-child dyad. However, the time course and functional stage of modulatory effects of OT on attachment-related processing, especially in fathers, are poorly understood. To elucidate the functional and neural mechanisms underlying the role of OT in paternal-child attachment, we performed an event-related potential study in 24 healthy fatherswho received intranasal OT in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, within-subject experimental design. Participants passively viewed pictures of their own child (oC), a familiar (fC) and an unfamiliar child (ufC) while event-related potentials were recorded.
Adult Attachment Styles and Psychological Disease - Examining the Mediating Role of Personality Traits
PAOLA SURCINELLI, NICOLINO ROSSI, ORNELLA MONTEBAROCCI, BRUNO BALDARO
University of Bologna
ABSTRACT. The aim of the present study was to examine differences in anxiety and depression related to differences in attachment models of the self and of others and whether personality traits mediate this relationship. The authors assessed attachment styles, anxiety, depression, and personality traits among 274 adult volunteers. Participants were classiﬁed into 4 attachment groups (secure, preoccupied, fearful, and dismissing–avoidant) according to K. Bartholomew’s (1990) model. The present authors found signiﬁcant differences among attachment groups on anxiety and depressive symptoms with attachment styles involving a negative self-model showing higher scores than attachment styles characterized by a positive self-model. The authors also found that differences between attachment styles in anxiety and depression remained signiﬁcant when personality factors related to attachment prototypes were entered as covariates. Results indicate that secure attachment in adults was associated with better mental health, while insecure attachment styles characterized by negative thinking about the self were associated with higher depression and anxiety scores. Our ﬁndings seem to evidence that attachment and personality are only partly overlapping and that attachment cannot be considered as redundant with personality in the explanation of psychological disease.
Adult attachment style. I: Its relationship to clinical depression
A. Bifulco · P. M. Moran · C. Ball · O. Bernazzani
Abstract: Background Although there are an increas-ing number of studies showing an association of adult attachment style to depressive disorder, such studies have rarely utilised epidemiological approaches with large community-based series and have relied heavily on brief self-report measurement of both attachment style and symptoms. The result is a wide inconsistency in the type of insecure style shown to relate to disorder. The present study examined adult attachment style in a high-risk community sample of women in relation to clinical depression. It utilised an interview measure of adult attachment which allowed for an assessment of both type of attachment style and the degree of insecu-rity of attachment. A companion paper examines its re-lationship with other depressive-vulnerability (Bifulco et al. 2002). Method Two hundred and twenty-two high-risk and 80 comparison women were selected from questionnaire screenings of London GP patient lists and intensively interviewed. A global scale of attachment style based on supportive relationships (with partner and very close others) together with attitudes to sup-port-seeking, derived the four styles paralleling those from self-report attachment assessments (Secure, En-meshed, Fearful, Avoidant). In order to additionally re-flect hostility in the scheme, the Avoidant category was subdivided into ‘Angry-dismissive’ and ‘Withdrawn’. The degree to which attitudes and behaviour within such styles were dysfunctional (‘non-standard’) was also assessed.Attachment style was examined in relation to clinical depression in a 12-month period. For a third of the series this was examined prospectively to new on-set of disorder. Results The presence of any insecure